By Russ Jensen

Last time I described all of the seminars given at Pinball Expo '93 except for one. I shall now describe that final seminar, followed by coverage of the Banquet, game auction, and the Exhibit Hall.


The final seminar on the Expo schedule occurred on Saturday afternoon (the only seminar that day) and was the longest of them all. This was not surprising, however, when you consider it had not one, but four (count 'em) guest speakers.

Expo host Rob Berk began this offering by telling us that there were certain individuals in the hobby that performed "beyond the call of duty". He said the seminar speakers would provide an "in-depth presentation" covering all aspects of the hobby.

Rob then introduced the first speaker, Wayne Morgan from Canada, who he said was knowledgeable in many aspects of pinball, including history, art, and culture. After mentioning the pinball exposition (appropriately called "Tilt") Wayne was involved in over 19 years earlier, the audience broke into a round of applause.

Wayne began by saying that today's presentation would be an edited version of the talk they gave before the American Popular Culture meeting in 1990. He then began to tell of the "Tilt Exposition".

Wayne said that show was edited by him, toured for five weeks, and had a catalog. He said that was the first time a public institution (The Regina Public Library) seriously examined pinball.

In the early 1970's, Wayne then told us, many Canadians wanted to stay home, work, and discover "what was there". He said this resulted in an increased interest in folk art, amateur art, and "working man's pleasures".

Wayne then told of Canadian pinball fan Pat McCarthy coming to his office at the Regina Public Library and leaving with the commitment to do the traveling exposition. He said they obtained a grant from the Canada Council to finance the project.

After that, Wayne continued, Pat went to Chicago to visit people in the pingame industry. He said that Pat had a hard time at first getting help from industry people.

Wayne next showed some slides of the exposition items which consisted of 23 complete 1950's pingames, 10 playfields, and 5 backglasses. He then told about the wire services picking up on news of the exhibition and publicizing it around the world.

On opening night, Wayne told us, there was a long line of people waiting to get in, some having to wait as much as an hour. He then commented that pin collecting in those days was not as prevalent as it is today. Wayne then told about the newsletter (also called "Tilt") which he published in the early 1970's, adding that several books on pinball came out a little later.

Wayne next told of other pinball related exhibitions which occurred in later years. In 1981, he told us, French collector Jean-Pierre Couvier put on a small exhibition, and later that year there was another show in Paris, but there was no documentation concerning it.

In 1982, Wayne continued, the Chicago Public Library Cultural Center put on an exhibition of pinball art from the 1970's and 1980's. He said this exhibition featured both backglasses and playfields, that none of the games could be played, and that the games were tilted in such a way that the playfields were clearly visible.

Wayne next told of another exhibition at the University of Waterloo in Canada which he said also was not documented. He then told of the 17 day exhibition of pingames, called "Pinball Wizardry", which was held in St. Louis in the Summer of 1990. Since that time, Wayne commented, there has been much research related to pinball.

Wayne ended his talk by commenting that the history of pingames was in some ways similar to the history of the electric guitar. He then introduced the next speaker, pinball historian and author Dick Bueschel, which drew a round of applause.

Dick began his part of the seminar with the question - "what is popular culture, and why does pinball qualify?" He then answered the question by telling us that it is "an ever-moving mass of public mores, modes, and entertainments", citing Hula Hoops as an example.

Dick next talked about pinball's early ancestor, the game of Bagatelle. He said that that game had it's roots in such 18th Century games as "Bowling on the Green" and "Nine Balls".

Dick then told about the game of "English Billiards" which he said when put on an incline, and with pins added to it, became Bagatelle around 1717. He then started telling of French king Louis XVI and his connection with that game.

Dick explained that Louis built a large estate outside of Paris which he named "Chateau de Bagatelle", and that the game was named for that. He then described the game in some detail.

Bagatelle, Dick went on, soon became "the rage of France", and also of the French Army who brought it to our country during the Revolutionary War. He then commented that Louis' chateau was now a public park.

In the United States, Dick continued, the U.S. Army spread Bagatelle around the country. The Gold Rush of 1849, he told us, helped to build up San Francisco which had many saloons. He said that the saloon supply houses of the East and bagatelle makers of Paris were kept busy supplying various games to saloons in the area.

Dick then told of a San Francisco game producer who started around 1855 named Philip Lisenfeld who he said put out over a dozen different models including several large bagatelles. He then said that his chief game designer, William Evers, created a new game around 1870 called JENNY LIND which Dick told us had revolving targets on it's playfield. He then referred to Evers as "the first playfield designer."

The City of Cincinnati, Dick told us, was a major industrial center in the latter half of the Nineteenth Century. Around 1869, he continued, Bagatelle maker Michael Redgrave set up shop in that city. In May 1870, when he was only 24 years old, Redgrave obtained a very important patent for the use of a spring-loaded plunger on a Bagatelle game.

Later, he added bells to the game, Dick remarking that he was really "the father of pinball". In May of 1871 he was said to have been granted another important patent.

Dick told us that Redgrave later moved to Chicago only to have his factory damaged in the great Chicago fire. After the city was rebuilt Dick said he founded a new company, Redgrave and Wilson, which became the first producer of a Bagatelle game employing a spring-loaded plunger to launch the balls onto the playfield.

When the demand for this type of game shortly increased, Dick said Redgrave moved to Jersey City, later obtaining some more patents. He then told us that Redgrave advertised his games in the Police Gazette, and that he produced bagatelles up until 1927.

Dick then told of another game producer coming out with a game in 1876 with a "runway" (the first "multi-level playfield", he called it) and even a "ball lift" device. The first "coin controlled" bagatelle type game, Dick went on, was an "upright" game produced in England in 1899 and was called PICKWICK.

Dick then said that in 1891 a 36 year old Canadian, Robert H. Little, produced a saloon trade stimulator which vended cigars.

The first "true pingame", Dick then told us, having an inclined playfield was produced in the Fall of 1892 by Charles P. Young of York Pennsylvania. He called it a "coin game board" and Dick said it was similar to the pingames which were produced in the early Thirties. He said that to date none of these games have ever been found.

After telling of another early game, referred to as a "trading machine", which was produced in Alton Illinois and had an "automatic ball shooter", Dick told of another pioneer game which came out in 1901.

Dick said this game, called AUTOMATIC FLAG TABLE, made by Paul F. Berger, was quite popular and used full-sized Billiard balls. He then told us that it had a "coin acceptor" and a form of "automatic scoring".

At that point Dick talked about the most well-known of pinball's early ancestors, LOG CABIN. He said this game first came out in 1901, and was made and sold up into the 1920's. He then told of a game made in 1903 which had a "lighted backglass" and automatic scoring.

Dick next started describing the early pingames which came out in the early Thirties. Such games as ABT's BILLIARD SKILL and DUTCH POOL were mentioned. He said these "marble games" rapidly gained in popularity at that time.

Dick then told of a Californian, George Miner, who he referred to as "the father of the modern pingame." George's career, Dick told us, was fairly short. One of his early designs, ALL AMERICAN AUTOMATIC BASEBALL, which first came out in 1928, was the game which fascinated young Harry Williams when he was just getting into the games business.

That game, Dick continued, had a score indication device and let the player play until "3 outs" were made, and had balls which advanced around the bases. Dick said this basic design formed the basis of Rockola's 1937 hit baseball game WORLD SERIES.

Dick then told us that Miner's baseball game first came out when the market was not so good. In 1933, he went on, Miner sold the rights to his design to Bally who used his patents on many of their games. We were then told that Bally made Miner their Chief Engineer in 1935, Dick adding that George died in a plane crash in October of that year.

Dick next told of a ban on pool halls in Texas. He said this brought about the manufacture of miniature pool games which led to player acceptance of table-top games.

Dick then talked briefly about another pioneer pingame, WHIFFLE, which came out in January of 1931, telling about it's inventor, Earl Froom, who appeared as an Expo guest speaker several years ago. He then told of a game called ROLL-A-BALL which was put out by Charles Chizewer in May of 1931. This game, Dick remarked, was available both with or without a coin payout and provided 5 balls for a penny.

Dick then told of a game called BINGO which was created by Nathan Robin and later manufactured by D. Gottlieb & Co. He then commented that shortly after that Dave Gottlieb "struck it rich" with his very popular pin BAFFLE BALL.

The 1931 coin machine show, Dick then commented, had no pingames, but the 1932 show had about sixty! He then started talking about Ray Moloney, the founder of Bally.

Dick told us that Ray was an assistant in a punchboard business which used the names of Lyon Manufacturing Co. and Midwest Novelty Co. and which eventually got into pins. He said they tried to get BAFFLE BALL games from Gottlieb, but when they could not get them fast enough Ray decided to make his own game.

After he had created the "whiteboard" for his game, Dick continued, he wanted to be able to show it at the February 1932 coin machine show. Ray then saw a striking cover on an edition of the current satire magazine Ballyhoo and decided to steal both the cover artwork and the name for his new creation.

After that, Dick told us, Moloney started Bally Manufacturing (named after the game) to produce it. He then told of the song Ray used at his booth at the show "What'll They Do in 32? - Play Ballyhoo!". Dick then said pinball games in 1932 were the hottest new thing to come along at that time.

Dick then told us that over 100 pingames were introduced in that year, with almost anyone who could build a game doing so. He then told of Gottlieb's game from that year, FIVE STAR FINAL, which was thought by some to be named that way because Dave Gottlieb thought it would be his last pin. In actuality, however, it was named for an edition of a Chicago Newspaper.

At that point Dick began telling of the many problems and lawsuits which plagued the pingame industry in those early years. He first told of a lawsuit by WHIFFLE inventor Earl Froom alleging patent infringement by the pingame industry. He said Mills Novelty finally bought the Froom Patents.

Another important court case, Dick told us, was Calison vs Gottlieb. He said it was thrown out of court, but if Gottlieb had lost the case it could have meant the end of that company. Dick ended by telling us "pinball lives and will endure!"

At that point the next speaker, Gordon Hasse, was introduced who was said to have a great interest in the pingames of the 1950's. Gordon's part of the presentation was said to be titled "Dreams and Aspirations of the Golden Age".

Gordon began by drawing our attention to the great pinball artist George Molentin who he said was responsible for more amusement game art than any other person on earth. He then began showing slides of the pinball art of both George and the other great pinball artist Roy Parker from the period from 1947 through 1960.

Gordon began his slide show by remarking that George and Roy were the most respected pinball artists of the period. He then told us that pinball art began in the 1930's as decorative design whose purpose was to attract players to the games as well as to present the game's "rules".

In the 1930's, Gordon went on, pinball art differentiated hundreds of different games. On the earliest games he said the art primarily was used to illustrate the game's name/theme.

With the introduction of electric scoring to pinball, Gordon told us, the art was used to "report the player's progress". He then remarked that the backglasses of pingames became the place where the game's theme is most totally developed. He then began showing examples of this.

The backglasses Gordon then showed included: Roy Parker's Gottlieb creations ROCKETTES and JUST 21 (1950), HAPPY DAYS (1952), LADY LUCK (1954), and TWIN BILL (1955). The Molentin games shown were: PINKY (1950) and SHOO SHOO (1951).

Gordon next remarked that on first impression one might think pin art was just "girls, girls, girls", but it also functions in a host of different ways, he added. He then told us that the girls were there to appeal to the young working-class males who were the main pinball players in those days, adding that playing pinball was "a respite from reality" for them.

Gordon next showed Parker's beautiful QUEEN OF HEARTS from 1952. He described the girl in the picture as "beautiful, but tantalizing", adding that she was also a player. He then told us that QUEEN OF HEARTS was a very successful game and that it was one of it's designer's, Wayne Neyens, favorites.

More "Parker pin-ups" where then shown. These included: JOKER (1950), POKER FACE (1953), GYPSY QUEEN and EASY ACES (1955), and ACE HIGH and ROYAL FLUSH both from 1957.

At that point Gordon's slide show switched over to "the other master" (as he called him), George Molentin. After showing George's backglass for Williams' 1952 game FOUR CORNERS, Gordon remarked that Parker's girls were move comic or "pin-up", while George's are more sophisticated or "damsels in distress". He added that players should be happy to spend 5 cents just to be with any of them.

Back to Parker again, Gordon showed his 1954 game DAISY MAY with it's "Dogpatch" scene, followed by his 1948 classic BARNACLE BILL, remarking about the brothel in the scene. He then showed what I consider probably Parker's greatest creation (with the possible exception of Genco's METRO), DRAGONETTE from 1954.

Gordon then remarked that the DRAGONETTE art could be described as "pop culture on pop culture on pop culture". He said this was because it was a pinball satire of a TV show which came from a radio show which was a reflection of the times that spawned it.

Gordon then told about a male character on the glass dressed in women's clothes which he said was Parker's pun on being "in drag". We were then shown some details of the playfield art.

We were next shown more great 1950's backglasses having themes associated with various activities such as dancing, shopping, air travel, ice shows, and circuses, all featuring pretty girls in the scenes.

After showing Roy Parker's DIAMOND LIL from 1954, Gordon began showing some of the many games with a travel theme prevalent in the late 1940's and early 1950's. These included games such as MANHATTAN, SAN FRANCISCO, BOSTON, OKLAHOMA, NEVADA and WISCONSIN.

Switching to International travel, Gordon showed CONTROL TOWER, BERMUDA, and backglass scenes from France and Algeria. Sports themes were then illustrated by DERBY DAY, BASEBALL, and a game with an "Indy Race" theme.

After showing scenes illustrating pool halls and bowling alleys, Gordon showed Parker's KNOCK OUT from 1950, which showed people in the boxing ring audience fighting with each other. He said this was more of the satire Parker was famous for.

We were next shown Parker's backglass for Gottlieb's FRONTIERSMAN from 1955 which had a Davy Crockett theme. Again Gordon pointed out the Parker comedic touches, such as a road-sign reading "Al-a-mode - 1000 Miles".

The next backglass Gordon showed was Parker's NIAGARA from 1951, He described the scene as showing "where the fantasy world collides with the real world". He said it depicted when the working-class male, with his idea of marital bliss when he marries the girl next door, finally decides to get married and enters the real "adult world" of marriage.

That ended Gordon's fine artistic presentation. The fourth speaker, Steve Young, was then introduced. His topic, we were told, was going to be how technology affected pingame design.

Steve began by remarking that pinball design could be considered as a "kinetic art form". He then started describing various technological advances in pingame design over the years.

Steve again mentioned the introduction of the spring-loaded plunger first used on bagatelle back in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century. In 1933, he then told us, came the introduction of electric power from batteries and the TILT mechanism (first mechanical, then electrical). He also mentioned steel balls replacing glass or ceramic ones used on some games in the early Thirties.

In 1936, Steve continued, came the introduction of the spring bumper and the electric "score totalizer" on Bally's watershed game BUMPER. He then told how relays were used enabling a small electric current to control larger currents - they being used on all pingames up until the introduction of solid-state electronics to pinball in the late 1970's.

After remarking that in the mid-Thirties backboards were added to pins, increasing in size during that decade, Steve briefly mentioned the World War II period when the pinball industry turned to "war work". After the war he said technological advances in pins began again.

Steve then mentioned the introduction of the "score motor" and flippers (on Gottlieb's HUMPTY DUMPTY in December 1947) the latter he said "changing the game forever". Later developments he then mentioned included pop-bumpers, contact kickers, targets, kickout and trap holes, and the "free ball gate".

By the early 1950's, Steve told us, there was a technical lull in pingame development, with designers beginning to experiment with using various combinations of the previous developments on the playfield. At first, he continued, the games' backboxes were still comparatively simple.

Steve then told of the beginning of multi-player pins in 1954. Later, he went on, the designers started using "mechanical animation" in the backbox. He then remarked that single-player games were always preferred by the "true players".

In 1978, Steve then told us, single-player pins started to "pass from the scene" with the advent of solid-state games. As a final comment on electro-mechanical game technology Steve mentioned the introduction of the "drop target" in 1968.

Steve next continued talking about the introduction of solid-state microprocessor controlled games which started around 1977 with such games as Bally's EVIL KNIEVAL. He began by remarking that these new games were "both simpler and more complex" (especially the game control technology).

Steve then diverted for a moment to the history of pingame "sound technology." He said at first in the early Thirties there was no sound at all. But soon bells were added, some being struck by the ball to produce sound, but mostly operated by electricity.

Then, in the 1970's, Steve continued, electro-mechanical chimes were used, followed by microprocessor generated chime effects. In 1979, Steve then told us, the first game to employ electronic speech, Williams' GORGAR, came out. This was followed by more electronic sound effects and speech.

Steve then told us that in 1984 or 1985 pingames began to utilize "computer control" to integrate the play of the game with various light and sound effects. After that, he continued, other advances in game sophistication occurred including multi-level playfields, ramps, and alpha- numeric (followed by "raster") displays.

Steve ended by saying what he has chronicled has been the adaption of new technology to provide more entertainment value to the public. This, he continued, to provide excitement, keep people honest, increase the skill level necessary to play, and keep production in line with the economics of the industry. The promise of the future, Steve then added, is to provide more technology and devise even more exciting games for the next generation of players.

At that point Wayne Morgan got back up to make some closing remarks. He began by remarking that the growth of the pinball collecting hobby and associated research in the past 19 years has been impressive. He then commented that there have been about two dozen books on pinball put out during that time.

Wayne then said that the interest in pingame collection, documentation, and study has had a somewhat slow growth as compared to other aspects of popular culture. But, he went on, there is something to be said for that as that generally results in a stronger foundation.

One thing that is left, Wayne then told us, is a process of validation by the institutions charged with the collection and preservation of objects which are a part of our everyday life. By that Wayne said he meant that museums, for instance, should show bagatelle games and have information on Redgrave.

For example, he continued, the Chicago Historical Society's exposition of the past 200 years of the city should have something about Redgrave, plus information of the rise and fall of the bagatelle industry in the area. Wayne then added that the museum's archives should allow for research into the coin-op industry of the district, including legal, business, social, and technological aspects of it.

Finally, the audience was asked if they had any questions? Referring to the slides previously shown, the panel was asked what kind of light is best for photographing pingames?

Steve Young replied that the use of subdued sunlight allows good photos to be made without reflection. He then recommended using a good telephoto lens. This precipitated a brief discussion with people in the audience regarding photography techniques.

In was then asked during what time period payout pingames were most prevalent? Bally's first payout, ROCKET, in 1933 was said to be the first. It was also stated that a Swedish distributor added a payout to Bally's earlier game AIRWAY. It was then said that payout pingames were very detrimental to the game itself.

Someone then asked if anyone had done a history of the bingo pinball? The panel did not seem to know, but I later told the questioner about the article I had written on that subject several years ago.

When asked if artist Roy Parker ever did art for anyone other than Gottlieb, the answer given was "yes, for both Chicago Coin and Genco." It was also emphasized that he did all the Gottlieb art up until 1962.

It was then asked who did the Gottlieb art in the 1970's? The answer given was Gordon Morrison.

When Steve Young was finally asked if he still collected pingame serial numbers, he answered "yes". That ended this very interesting and informative final Expo seminar.


The annual Expo banquet was held, as usual, on Saturday evening. I felt very privileged when Steve Kordek of Williams/Bally/Midway Games invited me and my good friend John Campbell to sit at the "Williams table". After a nice meal the after dinner festivities began.

First on the program was Expo seminar presenter Todd Tuckey's surprise, his "name that head game", during which various pinball backboxes were described - the audience trying to guess the name of the game.

At that point it was time for the evening's featured speaker Alvin Gottlieb to give his talk. Rob Berk started to introduce Alvin by saying "the best way to introduce Alvin is Patent 4,971,393" (the number of his now famous "smart flipper" patent).

Alvin's son, Mike Gottlieb, then interrupted Rob by saying "I have a better way". Mike then started mentioning some of Alvin's many friends in the industry over the years. He then told us that people see the results of what his father does, but most people don't know what things are most important to him.

The most important thing to Alvin, Mike then told us, was his family. Second, he continued, Alvin always wants to "give back a gift" to the people. In that connection, Mike told about the Gottlieb Memorial Hospital, with it's newly added Cancer Center, to which his father contributes much time and energy.

Mike then remarked that people always ask him what Alvin is all about? He then proceeded to tell an interesting story about his dad.

He told us that his father had been a radio "ham" for many years. Back in 1975, he continued, he put a radio set in his car and connected it to a telephone handset. He then called other hams and had them "patch" him to someone on the telephone - the first "mobile phone".

Mike next commented that he often hears about the "generation gap". He said that this was really no problem for him as Alvin is "a kid at heart" and never stops learning.

He then told us that Alvin and the family really loved the Marx Brothers. He said that he even calls his father "boss", just like Chico. Mike then commented that his father was always talking about the Ritz Brothers, who he had never heard of and thought didn't exist. But, he said, when he saw their "star" on Hollywood Blvd. he became a believer.

Finally, Mike introduced his father. He told us Alvin was "a model executive with a warm personality". The audience then applauded as Alvin got up to speak.

Alvin began by quipping "what an introduction - just the way I wrote it." After remarking that Mike was "his own man", he told us that he has been together with his girlfriend Donna for 15 years now.

At that point Alvin took out a long piece of paper which he jokingly said was his notes. He then said that Rob Berk had told him to keep an eye on the clock during his talk.

Alvin then told us that he wanted to talk about pinball - where it's been and where it's going?

After mentioning the contributions to pinball of Wayne Neyens and Steve Kordek, he praised Dick Bueschel and his book "Pinball 1". Alvin then commented that people should get a hold of all the books that are out on pinball. He then remarked about what he called "the astounding ingenuity" of people in the pinball industry.

Alvin next told us that he was born in 1927 - the same year his father founded D. Gottlieb and Co. He then said he had "lived with the business" when he was young, considering the factory as his "second home."

At that point Alvin told of the early battery operated pingames in the 1930's, telling how when the batteries went bad they leaked acid inside the game cabinets making them "gooey". He then told how Steve Kordek at Genco used D.C. components for many years, telling how this had some advantages over the more common A.C. circuitry used in most games, especially with regard to "timing" and "delays".

When Alvin then told us that he was partial to electro-mechanical pins he drew a round of applause from us "old timers". He then told of sitting next to Wayne Neyens at the old Gottlieb plant in the early days, remarking that the old games were like "old friends" to him.

Alvin next began talking about the beginnings of solid-state circuitry. He said that the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories invented the transistor - adding that before that the only solid-state electronic devices were diodes and crystals.

After referring to the Bell people as "geniuses", Alvin said that the old telephone equipments they designed were designed to have about a 20 year life. He then lamented the break up of "Ma Bell".

After that, Alvin went on, the Japanese saw an opening and got together to produce standardized, mass produced, electronic parts. He then said that he admired Motorola executive Bob Galvin who he said didn't sit still and began a good quality control program at his company.

Along with the introduction of solid-state circuitry into telephone equipment, Alvin remarked, came the use of that type of circuitry in pingames. He then commented that most people today are used to computer and solid-state terms, but in his day many of those words had entirely different meanings.

Alvin then jokingly gave a list of these terms and what they used to mean before computers came along. He began by saying that in his day "solid-state" was only a condition.

Some of the other definitions included: "semi-conductor" - a short orchestra leader; "mouse" - had big ears and was named Mickey; "hard drive" - a baseball term; "software" - ladies undergarments; and "RAM" - a Dodge truck.

His list continued with such definitions as: "cursor" - a seedy old boy who hit his thumb with a hammer; "microprocessor" - something which chops carrots into small pieces; "spreadsheet" - something you do to a bed; "monitor" - a mean teacher in the hall; and "high resolution" - "I'll never do it again".

Getting back to pingames, Alvin remarked that he thought the current games were "fantastic", with their multi-dimensional playfields, great sound, flashing lights, and complex game rules. He then commented that players today have to think about the rules of the games, but really love to play them.

Regarding his son's introduction of him, Alvin commented that the dictionary defines "model" (model executive) as "a small version of the real thing", and "warm" (warm personality) as "not so hot". "Terrific", he said, "thanks a lot!"

As to where pinball is going in the future, Alvin first remarked that pingames are where they are today primarily because solid-state pins have "memory". He then commented that the designers today are doing really great things.

As to what's coming, Alvin said we could expect higher resolution color displays, and new "devices" on the playfield giving the player lots to do and to think about. He then commented that he sees a great future for the game and is glad to be "back into it".

(AUTHOR'S NOTE: Shortly before I wrote this I learned that Alvin G. and Co. went out of business. It was sad news to hear and I wish Alvin, Mike, vnd their crew the best of luck in their future endeavors.)

At that point Alvin said that when he spoke at the first Expo banquet in 1985 he presented a slide show which ran over two hours. He said he was going to present one this time, but would try to make it shorter.

The first slide was of the old political cartoon showing Abe Lincoln playing a game of pinball's early ancestor Bagatelle. After showing photos of his dad, David Gottlieb, at age 9 delivering newspapers, and at age 26 when he was in Dallas operating grip testers, he showed the original D. Gottlieb and Co. plant at 4318 Chicago Ave.

Alvin then told of once asking his dad why his penny grip testers had such a large coin slot? His dad was said to have replied "we would take anything anyone wanted to put in, even streetcar tokens."

After showing LOG CABIN, the pingame format trade stimulator which came out around the Turn of the Century, he showed the 1931 Leo Berman pin, BINGO, which Gottlieb bought the rights to and built. He then showed Gottlieb's high selling 1931 pingame BAFFLE BALL, which he said the factory produced 300 to 400 per day at one time.

Alvin next showed Bally founder Ray Moloney, who he said was his father's good friend, and his pioneer pingame BALLYHOO. We next saw Gottlieb's 1932 pin PLAYBOY, followed by their FIVE STAR FINAL. That game he said some people thought was named that because Dave thought it might be his last pingame - but it was actually named for a newspaper edition.

Alvin next mentioned a man named Joe Litowski, who he referred as his father's "first employee". He said Joe was in charge of the tool room at the plant and required everybody, even the boss's son, to check out his or her tools.

He then told us that there were several employees at the old Gottlieb plant named Joe. Alvin then joked that they all had the same middle name, "bida". He said, "you know, Joe 'bida' tool room, Joe 'bida' punch press, etc."

Alvin's slide show continued, telling and showing different things about the company's (and his father's) history. After awhile he talked about his dad's retirement in Florida, including his succession of boats, all named "Flipper" (I, II, and III).

He then told my favorite Dave Gottlieb story. Alvin said that one time after returning to shore from a day of fishing he had a crew man divide his day's catch into several packages which he delivered to several of his local friends on his way home.

Alvin told us one of the people said to his dad: "you know there's one thing I can't understand Dave. Here you retire from a successful business in Chicago where you made a lot of money and come down here to Florida and start a fish route."

Finally, Alvin talked and showed more pictures of his father's "pet project" the Gottlieb Memorial Hospital. He told us that Dave endowed the hospital in 1957. He then said that he raised over 4 million dollars for the hospital, much of it coming from the coin machine industry.

We were then told that the hospital is still growing and now boasts a "health and fitness center". The total budget for the hospital, Alvin remarked, is around 115 million dollars.

Alvin then thanked Rob Berk for inviting him to speak, also saying he was looking forward to attending the 10th anniversary Expo in 1994. Alvin then received a healthy round of applause.

When Alvin's talk was over Rob Berk came back up and presented Alvin with a nice plaque. He then introduced the banquet "head table". Those seated there included: Alvin, his good friend Donna Cooper, Expo Exhibit Hall Chairman Mike Pacak, Rob's mother, and his girlfriend Bridget.

Next Rob did something he began several banquets ago. He asked everybody there to stand up. He next asked all first-time Expo attendees to sit down, then made the same request of those who had only attended two Expos. Rob continued this process until only those of us who had attended all nine shows remained standing.

After that little break Rob presented the awards for Best Exhibit. Jim Tolbert and Judy McCrory's FOR AMUSEMENT ONLY booth took top honors this year. Steve and Laura Engle's PINBALL SUPERMARKET (winners of Best Exhibit at several past shows) took second place this year.

Rob next thanked Alvin G. and Co. for allowing the Expo guests to tour their pinball plant, presenting a plaque to Michael Gottlieb. He then thanked the other pinball manufacturers for participating.

At that point a special event (which also began several shows ago), the nomination of new people to the "Pinball Hall of Fame", occurred. This year's "Hall of Famers" were artist George Molentin and Williams/Bally/Midway's Steve Kordek, both of whom were present.

Next Rob presented the award for the best restored pingame at the show, the honor going to Donal Murphy for his 1965 Gottlieb KINGS & QUEENS. This was followed by the "Best of Show" award for the pinball art contest. The winner was Rob Kleinholter for the very impressive artistic presentation he made using mirrors.

Rob then introduced Richard Shapiro from Louisville who he referred to as "professor emeritus". Richard then asked all the instructors from the "pinball school", held the first afternoon of the show, to come up on stage. These included: Aaron Benidit, Rick Stetta, Dave Hegge, Michael Gottlieb, Julia Slayton, Lyman Sheets, Bob Rosenhaus, Jon Norris, and Dan McDonald. They received a healthy round of applause.

Next was the prize for the best pinball costume (banquet attendees were asked to dress up to depict their favorite pingame). The winner was a lady dressed as ELVIRA.

Following that John Wyatt from the English Pinball Owner's Association was invited up on stage to make the POA's now annual presentation - their award for the best new pingame of the past year.

This year they chose Bally's CREATURE FROM THE BLACK LAGOON, but John said their TWILIGHT ZONE came in a close second. Williams/Bally/Midway's Director of Marketing Roger Sharpe and game designer John Trudeau accepted the award. They then praised the game's design team, that drawing a round of applause.

At that point show producer Rob Berk let promoters of other pinball shows around the country plug their events. First was John Bateman to put in a plug for the annual New England Pinfest which was in it's third year.

Next was Bruce Carlton telling of the upcoming 5th year of his Pinball Show which is held annually in Scottsdale Arizona. Finally, Steve Epstein of the Broadway Arcade in New York City told of his upcoming 4th annual Professional/Amateur Pinball Association (PAPA) tournament.

Rob Berk then came back on stage to thank his staff, the tournament scorers, seminar speakers, etc. for making this show a success. He then gave a special tribute/thanks to his co-producer and Exhibit Hall Chairman Mike Pacak. Rob then presented his girlfriend, Bridget Rueben, with a loving cup.

It was then time for the raffle. Prizes given away included a tape of Tim Arnold's Expo talk, a Premier STREET FIGHTER T-shirt, a Pinball calculator, a copy of Dick Bueschel's book ARCADE 1, a subscription to PinGame Journal, a reprint of the 1957 Gottlieb Parts Catalog, a pinball book from Australia, Expo sweat shirts, and pinball coils from Donal Murphy.

The grand prizes (2 new pingames!) were Gottlieb's TEE'D OFF and Bally's TWILIGHT ZONE. The latter was won by Tim Arnold - this quite often happens at Expo's due to Tim's purchase of a large majority of the tickets!

Rob Berk next announced that the 1994 edition of Pinball Expo (the 10th Anniversary of the show!) will be held on November 10 through 13 at the same location. He then announced that the Data East pinball plant would be toured that time.

Finally, Rob announced that long-time Gottlieb designer Wayne Neyens was about to celebrate his 75th birthday! We were then excused to return to the Exhibit Hall for some late night visiting and pinball playing.


This year, like last year, a coin machine auction was held in conjunction with Pinball Expo - put on by U.S. Amusement Auctions. The auction consisted primarily of pingames, although there were a few juke boxes, arcade and video games, bowlers, and even a couple slot machines and a kiddy ride.

Here is a sampling of what some of the older (or more interesting) pins sold for:

    GAME                MANUFACTURER        YEAR      SELLING PRICE
    KILROY                             Chicago Coin        1947      175
    GOLD CUP (1-BALL)                  Bally               1948       30
    CHAMPION (1-BALL)                  Bally               1948       50
    DALLAS                             Williams            1949      305
    SHUFFLE EXPRESS (Shuffle Alley)    United              194?      275
    TIC-TAC-TOE                        Williams            1959      325
    BIG DADDY                          Williams            1963      270
    SAN FRANCISCO                      Williams            1964      170
    ALPINE CLUB                        Williams            1965      110
    SPIN-A-CARD                        Gottlieb            1969      220
    NIP-IT                             Bally               1972      425
    KING PIN                           Gottlieb            1973      210
    WIZARD                             Bally               1974      500
    TOP CARD  (Add-A-Ball)             Gottlieb            1974      265
    SPIN-OUT                           Gottlieb            1975      150
    CAPTAIN FANTASTIC                  Bally               1975      525
    DRAGON  (new in box)               Interflip (Spain)   1975      700
    SPACE MISSION                      Williams            1976      200
    GEMINI                             Gottlieb            1978      275
    HERCULES  (giant game)             Atari               1979      450

One of the oldest, and more interesting, games in the auction went for the lowest price of the day - $30. This was Bally's 1-ball horserace pingame from 1948, GOLD CUP.

This type of pingame (used primarily as a gambling device) has fascinated me ever since I played one or two as a young teenager on summer visits to my mother's birthplace, Memphis Tennessee. Almost all of this type of pin (which started around 1936) had a very similar format.

When a coin was first deposited one (or occasionally more) of the seven (or eight) large numbers on the backglass would light. Along with that a set of "odds" (a series of 4 numbers, corresponding to four sections on the playfield) would also light.

In order to win the player would have to get his one ball (hence the name) into a hole on the playfield with a number matching the lit number (called a "selection") on the backglass. These holes were grouped into 4 sections on the playfield, usually labeled PURSE (near the top of the field), SHOW, PLACE, and WIN (near the bottom).

If the player succeeded in matching a lit number he would receive a number of replays (or coins if the machine was configured for coin payout - as many of these games were) corresponding to the "odds" lit on the backglass for the section in which he landed (PURSE, etc.). These games were very popular in certain sections of the country (especially in the South) until they were virtually outlawed by the passage of the Johnson Act in 1951.

The GOLD CUP in the auction appeared to be in fairly good condition, except for a peeling backglass, but there appeared to not be much interest in that type of game at the auction - a similar game, Bally's CHAMPION, selling for only $50. And GOLD CUP met with what I consider a sad fate.

A friend and I talked to the purchaser later (a Private Detective, no less) who told us he purchased the game in order to scrap all but the playfield which he was going to use for a decorative "wall hanging" We thought this was a shame, this great old game being relegated to a piece of artwork, although the playfield art is quite attractive and very likely was done by pinball art great George Molentin.


As was the case at all past Expos, the Exhibit Hall was really the "center of activity" of the show. It was the place where the pin fans congregated during the days and nights when it was open, to visit with each other, shop for games, literature, and supplies, and of course play pinball.

As usual there was a wide variety of pingames, both old and new, for viewing, playing, and for sale. In addition to machines, there were people selling parts and literature - people like Steve Young, Donal Murphy, Steve and Laura Engle, and Jim Tolbert and Judy McCrory.

And of course there was Exhibit Hall Chairman Mike Pacak with his usual fine assortment of pinball advertising brochures. Pinball magazine publisher Jim Schelberg also had a booth where pin fans could subscribe to his fine publication, PinGame Journal.

The Exhibit Hall was also the site of the battery of new pins used in the qualifying rounds of the annual Flip-Out pinball tournament. That area was always crowded with would-be-wizards trying to get high enough scores to compete in the tournament finals.

Since pingames, of course, were the major items in the hall I will now give a brief description of a few of the more interesting older pins present.

One of earliest pins displayed in the Exhibit Hall this time was Genco's KINGS from 1935. This is one of the many varied and interesting pins put out by this innovative company in that decade.

The theme of this game was another game - Checkers. The playfield contained a good replica of a Checkers board, and the game had a short light-up backboard typical of games of that year.

The CHECKERS at the show was in excellent condition and was sold almost immediately. Games of the 1930's, by the way, have been quite rare at past Expos, although there were 5 other 30's pins at this show.

Another beautiful game of that decade at the show was SIDE KICK from 1938, produced by Daval. That outfit made a few pingames, as well as other coin machines such as trade stimulators.

The backglass had beautiful Art Deco artwork (I LOVE Art Deco!), and the playfield was the same. That game was also in excellent condition, but as far as I know, did not sell. It should have - but interest in pre- flipper electrical pingames just seems to be low for some reason.

The 1950's fared a little better than the 1930's at this show - approximately a dozen pins. One of the nicest pins there from that decade was Gottlieb's GYPSY QUEEN from 1955.

The backglass artwork, most likely by famed pinball artist Roy Parker, featured a gypsy woman holding a gigantic crystal ball which showed the Aces and face cards of the four playing card suits.

The playfield of this "rollover game" featured 3 thumper bumpers, 2 "dead bumpers", and a host of rollover switches which lit up the cards on the backglass. The game's two flippers were located in a more or less standard position near the bottom of the field. There were also two "gobble holes", one of which "spotted" a selected card on the backglass.

This game was also in excellent condition.

The following is a chronological listing of all of the pingames for sale, play, and viewing in the Exhibit Hall:

    NAME                            MFG              YEAR   PRICE
    ------------------------------  ---------------  -----  --------
    FIVE STAR FINAL                 Gottlieb         1932   300
    OFFICIAL                        Mills            1932   300
    KINGS                           Genco            1935   SOLD
    SPIT FIRE                       Genco            1935   SOLD
    SQUADRON                        Rockola          1935   ??
    GOLDEN WHEEL (PAYOUT)           Bally            1937   1350
    SIDE KICK                       Daval            1938   375
    HIGH DIVE                       Gottlieb         1941   200
    HUMPTY DUMPTY                   Gottlieb         1947   1200
    CAROUSEL                        Keeney           1947   ??
    HEAVY HITTER (BASEBALL)         Bally            1948   500
    RAINBOW                         Williams         1948   275
    BOWLING CHAMP                   Gottlieb         1949   600
    ST. LOUIS                       Williams         1949   300
    THREE MUSKETEERS                Gottlieb         1949   NFS
    WILD WEST                       Gottlieb         1951   NFS
    ATLANTIC CITY (BINGO)           Bally            1952   395
    CORONATION                      Gottlieb         1952   800
    QUEEN OF HEARTS                 Gottlieb         1952   895
    SKILL POOL                      Gottlieb         1952   ??
    GYPSY QUEEN                     Gottlieb         1955   650
    STRAIGHT FLUSH                  Gottlieb         1957   ??
    WORLD CHAMP                     Gottlieb         1957   495
    ROCKET SHIP                     Gottlieb         1958   ??
    SUNSHINE (NO BACKGLASS)         Gottlieb         1958   195
    AROUND THE WORLD                Gottlieb         1959   ??
    MISS ANNABELLE                  Gottlieb         1959   400
    SEA WOLF                        Williams         1959   ??
    BIG CASINO                      Gottlieb         1961   495
    FLIPPER CLOWN (AAB)             Gottlieb         1962   300
    FLIPPER COWBOY (AAB)            Gottlieb         1962   ??
    TROPIC ISLE                     Gottlieb         1962   NFS
    GIGI                            Gottlieb         1963   800
    HOOTENANNY                      Bally            1963   NFS
    POKER FACE                      Keeney           1963   NFS
    SLICK CHICK                     Gottlieb         1963   600
    SWEET HEARTS                    Gottlieb         1963   395-600
    2-IN-1                          Bally            1964   495
    MAD WORLD                       Bally            1964   NFS
    PALOOKA                         Williams         1964   ??
    SEA SHORE                       Gottlieb         1964   NFS
    WING DING  (AAB)                Williams         1964   425
    WORLD FAIR                      Gottlieb         1964   450-675
    BANK-A-BALL                     Gottlieb         1965   ??
    ICE REVUE                       Gottlieb         1965   ??
    KINGS AND QUEENS                Gottlieb         1965   400-1000
    SKY-LINE                        Gottlieb         1965   600
    HOT LINE                        Williams         1966   350
    KICKER                          Chicago Coin     1966   ??
    MAGIC CITY                      Williams         1967   500-700
    SING ALONG                      Gottlieb         1967   350-550
    PAUL BUNYAN                     Gottlieb         1968   NFS
    CARD TRIX (AAB)                 Gottlieb         1970   275
    MINI CYCLE                      Gottlieb         1970   NFS
    HIGH SCORE POOL                 Chicago Coin     1971   NFS
    ODDS AND EVENS                  Bally            1971   ?
    NIP IT                          Bally            1972   950
    WINNER                          Williams         1972   350 AS IS
    JUMPING JACK                    Gottlieb         1973   ??
    PRO POOL                        Gottlieb         1973   200
    AIR ACES                        Bally            1974   550
    CAPTAIN CARD (AAB)              Gottlieb         1974   ??
    FREE FALL (AAB)                 Gottlieb         1974   >>
    HOKUS POKUS                     Bally            1975   350
    OLD CHICAGO                     Bally            1975   700
    SPIN OUT                        Gottlieb         1975   375
    TRIPLE STRIKE                   Williams         1975   200
    CAPTAIN FANTASTIC               Bally            1976   500-850
    GRAND PRIX                      Williams         1976   450
    NIGHT RIDER (SS)                Bally            1976   600
    PLAYBOY                         Bally            1976   600
    ROYAL FLUSH                     Gottlieb         1976   ??
    SPACE MISSION                   Williams         1976   450
    SPACE ODYSSEY                   Williams         1976   ??
    DISCO                           Stern            1977   200
    EIGHT BALL                      Bally            1977   600
    CLEOPATRA (SS)                  Gottlieb         1978   ??
    CLOSE ENCOUNTERS (SS)           Gottlieb         1978   200
    JOKER POKER (EM)                Gottlieb         1978   ??
    JOKER POKER (SS)                Gottlieb         1978   ??
    KISS                            Bally            1978   600-650
    NUGENT                          Stern            1978   ??
    SILVER BALL MANIA               Bally            1978   ??
    STARS                           Stern            1978   300
    TORCH                           Gottlieb         1978   200
    WORLD CUP (SS)                  Williams         1978   450
    FUTURE SPA                      Bally            1979   ?
    GORGAR                          Williams         1979   695
    HOT HAND                        Stern            1979   650
    SHARPSHOOTER                    Game Plan        1979   400
    SOLAR RIDE (SS)                 Gottlieb         1979   ??
    XENON                           Bally            1979   750-795
    BIG GAME                        Stern            1980   450
    BLACKOUT                        Williams         1980   475
    CIRCUS                          Gottlieb         1980   ??
    FATHOM                          Bally            1980   750
    FIREPOWER                       Williams         1980   475
    FLIGHT 2000                     Stern            1980   500
    SPIDER-MAN (AMAZING)            Gottlieb         1980   600
    BLACK HOLE                      Gottlieb         1981   300
    CAVEMAN                         Gottlieb         1981   450
    CENTAUR                         Bally            1981   695
    JUNGLE LORD                     Williams         1981   ??
    CENTAUR II                      Bally            1982   600
    MR. AND MRS. PAC MAN            Bally            1982   390
    ORBITOR I                       Stern            1982   ??
    AMAZON HUNT                     Gottlieb         1983   225
    KRULL                           Gottlieb         1983   NFS
    PINBALL CHAMP                   Zaccaria         1983   600
    READY-AIM-FIRE                  Gottlieb         1983   350
    KINGS OF STEEL                  Bally            1984   475
    SPACE SHUTTLE                   Williams         1984   ??
    CUE                             Stern            1984?  NFS
    FIREBALL CLASSIC                Bally            1985   650-695
    ROCK                            Gottlieb         1985   450/OBO
    SORCERER                        Williams         1985   ??
    GOLD WINGS                      Gottlieb         1986   495
    HIGH SPEED                      Williams         1986   995
    HOLLYWOOD HEAT                  Gottlieb         1986   600
    PINBOT                          Williams         1986   850
    RAVEN                           Gottlieb         1986   495
    SPECIAL FORCE                   Bally            1986   550
    BIG GUNS                        Williams         1987   ??
    F-14 TOMCAT                     Williams         1987   ??
    LASER WAR                       Data East        1987   695
    MILLIONAIRE                     Williams         1987   795
    MONTE CARLO                     Gottlieb         1987   850
    PARTY ANIMAL                    Bally            1987   ??
    SPRING BREAK                    Gottlieb         1987   850
    DIAMOND LADY                    Gottlieb         1988   ??
    ROAD KINGS                      Williams         1988   ??
    TAXI                            Williams         1988   ??
    BLACK KNIGHT 2000               Williams         1989   1295
    POLICE FORCE                    Williams         1989   ??
    GOLD BALL                       Bally            198?   ??
    GAME SHOW                       Bally            1990   1395
    PHANTOM OF THE OPERA            Data East        1990   NFS
    POOL SHARKS                     Bally            1990   ??
    RIVERBOAT GAMBLER               Bally            1990   ??
    ROLLER GAMES                    Williams         1990   ??
    GILLIGAN'S ISLAND               Bally            1991   1995
    STAR TREK                       Data East        1991   2095
    TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA TURTLES    Data East        1991   1595
    THE MACHINE (BRIDE OF PINBOT)   Williams         1991   2150
    FISH TALES                      Williams         1992   1995
    HOOK                            Data East        1992   2295
    LETHAL WEAPON III               Data East        1992   2495
    STREET FIGHTER II               Gottlieb         1992   NFS
    WORLD TOUR                      Alvin G. & Co.   1992   NFS
    INDIANA JONES                   Williams         1993   NFS
    JUDGE DREDD                     Bally            1993   NFS
    JURASSIC PARK                   Data East        1993   NFS
    LAST ACTION HERO                Data East        1993   NFS
    MYSTERY CASTLE                  Alvin G. & Co.   1993   NFS
    PUNCHY THE CLOWN (REDEMPTION)   Alvin G. & Co.   1993   NFS
    TEE'D OFF                       Gottlieb         1993   NFS
    TWILIGHT ZONE                   Bally            1993   NFS

Well, there you have it, the final installment of my coverage of Pinball Expo '93 - the 9th Pinball Expo. The 10th Anniversary show has already been scheduled for November 10 through 13, 1994. For more information call show producers Rob Berk (1-800-323-FLIP) or Mike Pacak (1- 800-321-2722). Hope to see you there!


Last time I showed a photograph of the backglass drawing of the "Design a Pinball Machine" game from the Expo - for the fictitious game JOEY BUTTAFUOCO. At that time I failed to give credit to the fine artist, Kai Bateman, who made the drawing. Great work Kai!

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